Foundations of Blockchain Technology and Cryptocurrencies EE25120

Fall 2018

Calendar

, Distributed Algorithms
DateTopicsRefrences and Readings
15 Sep 17 Sep Introduction to Cryptocurrencies
  • Vision of decentralization
  • High Level Introduction to Bitcoin
[Slide 01]

- Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System
22 Sep 24 Sep

29 Sep 01 Oct
Introduction to Cryptography
  • Algebra, Group Theory, Finite fields
  • Number Theory
  • Symmetric-Key Cryptography
  • Public-Key Cryptography
    • RSA
    • Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
  • Digital signature
  • Elliptic curves
  • Hash Functions
    • Merkle Trees
[Slide 02]

- Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice (7th edition)

Homework 1 (Due: 01 Oct)

Homework 2 (Due: 13 Oct)

Practical HW1 (Due: 20 Oct)
Template Answers
06 Oct 08 Oct

13 Oct 15 Oct
Introduction to Distributed Systems
  • Synchronous network model
  • Leader Election in A Synchronous Ring
  • Distributed consensus
    • Consensus with Link Failures
    • Consensus with Process(or) Failures
      • Consensus in sync. system with Process(or) Stopping Failures
      • Consensus in sync. System with Byzantine Failures
      • Fischer, Lynch, and Patterson (FLP) Impossibility Result
      • Paxos algorithm
      • Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance Algorithm (PBFT)
      • Ben-Or Randomized Consensus Scheme
      • CAP Theorem
[Slide 03]

- Distributed Algorithms by Nancy Lynch

- Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and Proactive Recovery by M. Castro and B. Liskov

Homework 3 (Due: 27 Oct)

Homework 4 (Due: 10 Nov)
27 Oct 29 Oct

03 Nov
Bitcoin in Details (First Generation)
  • Keys and Addresses
  • Transactions and Bitcoin Script
  • Bitcoin Store and Use
  • Network
  • Block Structure and Blockchain
  • Mining
  • Bitcoin anonymity
  • Hash Time Lock Contract
  • Atomic Swap
  • Fundamental Limits and Analytical Evaluations
[Slide 04.I]  [Slide 04.II]  [Slide 04.III]  [Slide 04.IV]

- Mastering Bitcoin Programming the Open Blockchain (2nd edition)

- Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies: A Comprehensive Introduction

Practical HW2 (Due: 23 Nov)
Materials
- Ethereum and Smart Contracts (Second Generation)
  • Programing on Solidity
- Ethereum White Paper

- Secure High-Rate Transaction Processing in Bitcoin (GHOST)
- Alternative Consensus Mechanism
  • Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance
  • Proof of Stake
  • Proof of Space
  • Proof of Burn
  • Ripple and Stellar
  • Tangle
  • GHOST
  • PHANTOM
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- Scalability of Blockchain
  • Base Layer Solutions
  • Layer 2 Solutions
  • Public vs. Private Blockchains
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- Privacy in Blockchain
  • Mapping IP address and Public Key
  • Monero
  • ZCash and ZK-SNARK
-
- Security of Blockchains
  • 51% attack
  • Selfish Mining
  • Noting-at-Stake Attack
  • P + ε attack
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- Cardano (3rd Generation) - Why we are building Cardano

- Non-Interactive Proofs of Proof-of-Work

- Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol

- Watch: IOHK — Cardano whiteboard; overview with Charles Hoskinson
- Applications of Blockchain
  • Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)
  • Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
  • Banking System
  • Energy Market
  • Distributed Storage/Computing (Storj, Enigma)
  • ...
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